In all these marketplaces, digital change in commerce (and notably in mature fiction) has just started its transformation of trade book marketplaces at this stage, so the loss in print hasn't yet been compensated by digital gains.
Publication marketplaces, by their arrangements and by their size, represent inequalities and intricate balances of wealth and of ethnic status, of access to knowledge, and of trading power, as the subsequent graph nicely exemplifies. The graph links the value of a nation's novel publishing marketplace per capita, the creation in names (new and re editions) per 1 million inhabitants, as well as the GDP (PPP) per capita, as an index of affluence. The illustration emphasizes how a bulk of the most powerful novel marketplaces consists of states from Western Europe and North America, plus Korea and Japan, definitely set apart from those emerging markets which aspire to instruction, but might manage to do so just lately.
In this graph a number of states stand out, most notably the UK and Spain, by virtue of their powerful exports in publications (and other ethnic goods).